Birmingham (ˈ/b ː m ɪ ŋ m / ɜ/ ), isˈ///) is a city and district in the West Midlands County, England. The city is next to the small river Rea and the second most populous city in England after London, with 1,101,360 in 2014.
|— Cities and Metropolitan Statistical Area —|
Clockwise Top: The center of Birmingham City from the south, the Birmingham City Hall, St Martin's Church and the Selfridges Award for Bull Ring, the University of Birmingham, St. Philip's Cathedral, Birmingham Library
|Keyword: Old Beormingahām (the seat of the Beormingas's residence or settlement)|
|Product name: |
Birmingham in West Midlands County
Birmingham locations in the United Kingdom
|Dominion of state||United Kingdom and Northern Ireland|
|State of the making||Anh|
|Ceremonial counties||West Midlands|
|Historical counties||Warwickshire District|
|Residential area||around 600|
|City status||January 14, 1889|
|Metropolitan areas of autonomy||April 1, 1974|
|Office of government||Council Building,|
|· Styles||Metropolitan areas of autonomy|
|· Components||City Council of Birmingham|
|· Cities||103.4 mi2 (267.8 km2)|
|· Urban||231.2 mi2 (598.9 km2)|
|Altitude||460 ft (140 m)|
|· Density||10.880/mi2 (4,199/km2)|
|· Urban||2,440,986 (3)|
|· Metropolitan areas||3,683,000 (2)|
|Resident name||Brummie District|
|Time zone||Greenwich Standard Time (UTC+0)|
|· Summer (DST)||English Daylight Time (UTC+1)|
|ISO 3166 code||GB-BIR|
|Sensible city||Frankfurt am Main, Chicago, Leipzig, Johannesburg, Lyon, Milano, Guangzhou, Xi'an, Zaporizhia, Changchun, Jilin|
|NUTS 3 code||UKG31|
|OS grid reference||SP06,6868|
M42 machine gun
|Main railway station||Birmingham New Street (A)|
Birmingham Moor Street (B)
Birmingham Snow Hill (C1)
|GDP (2014)||121.1 billion USD (2)|
|- Average||31,572 USD|
|Members of the Council||AD 120|
|Parliament of Europe||West Midlands|
Birmingham is a medium-sized market street in the medieval period, and then becomes prominent in the international stage of the 18th century as the focus of the Midlands Mining and the industrial revolution. In the industrial revolution, Birmingham pioneered the global advances in scientific, technical and economic development, and yielded a series of initiatives that would help lay a fundamental part of the modern industrial society. In 1791, Birmingham was lauded as the "first manufacturing town in the world". The city has a unique economic profile, with thousands of small shops of specialized and highly skilled occupations, which encourage the level of creativity and high level of initiative, and create a diverse and flexible economic base for the period of industrial prosperity until the end of the 20th century. The industrial steam engine that was invented in Birmingham, which is probably the most important of the U.K. Industrialization has led to a high degree of social mobility, which has fostered a more popular political progressive culture, which has made the city the largest political influence among localities out of London, and plays a key role in the development of democracy in England. In World War II, Birmingham was bombed by the German Air Force. The damage to infrastructure due to war, plus the new policy of destruction and construction of the planners has led to large-scale redevelopment in the subsequent decades.
Today, the services sector dominates Birmingham's economy. The city is a large international trade center rated as a gamma+ world city; and an important center for transportation, procurement, events and conference. The second largest area of Birmingham in the U.K. economy, has a GDP of 121.1 billion U.S. dollars in 2014, and the second largest university education center after London. Birmingham's main cultural institutions, such as the Birmingham City Symphony Orchestra, the Library of Birmingham, earn an international reputation, and have exciting and influential activities in art, music, literature and food. Birmingham is the fourth largest city in welcoming foreign visitors in the U.K. Birmingham's sporting legacy can be found globally, the Football League and Tennis tournaments are from the city.
History of history
The first period
Birmingham was initially an isolated area, while the centers of population, the primary power and prosperity of the Midlands (central England) in its preindustrial times were located in the Trent, Severn and Avon valleys as they could be reached. The area in Birmingham right now lies in the middle of them, in the highlands of Birmingham and in the forest of Arden where there are bushy trees and tiny residents.
There is evidence of human expenditure activity in the Birmingham area over the 10,000 years, with artifacts of the Stone Age, suggesting seasonal residential areas, night hunting parties and forest activities such as cutting trees. Many of the tissues of burning land are still visible around the city, indicating that modern humans settle and plant active crops in the region during the Bronze Age, when there is a substantial current and short-lived migration between 1700 BC and 1000 BC, possibly due to conflicts or immigration in surrounding areas. When the Romans (Rome) conquered England in the first century, the forest area in the highlands of Birmingham formed an obstacle that prevents the Roman legions, the Roman army building the Metchley barracks in this area called Edgbaston in 48, and turned it into the center of a network of Roman roads.
Birmingham became a settlement in the Anglo-Saxon period. The name of the city comes from the Old Beormingahem English language, which means that the birthplace or settlement of the Beormingas - shows that Birmingham was established in the sixth or beginning of the seventh century as the first settlement of a group ofAngle tribes and the same name. Despite this initial importance, by the time Domesreal Book (the land ledger) was prepared in 1086, Birmingham status was one of the poorest and least populated places in Warwickshire, which was only 20 shilling, and modern urban areas were split between Warwickshire, Staffordshire and Worcestershire County.
Birmingham's process developed into an important urban and commercial center that began in 1166, when the Lordship of Peter de Bermingham received the privilege of making the market in his city, and then formed an urban and planned market city in the territory, around the site of Bull Ring today. This event transforms Birmingham into the principal trading center of the early Birmingham highlands, while the regional economy expands quickly, the population grows and leads to light, cultivating, and resettlement in areas that were previously unfavorable. Within a century, Birmingham develops into a thriving urban center with traders and craftsmen. By 1327, this was the third largest town in Warwickshire, and maintained this position in 200 years.
The principal institutional regime in Birmingham in the medieval period consists of the Holy Cross and the power of the family of de Birmingham, but they collapsed from 1536 to 1547, making the town enjoy an extraordinary high degree of social and economic freedom, starting a transition and growth period. By 1700, the population of Birmingham increased 15 times and became the fifth largest town in England and Wales.
The importance of iron manufacturing for the economy of Birmingham is recognized as early as 1538, and has grown rapidly according to the century progress. It is equally important that the town rise to the center of iron-line businessmen, they organize finance, provide raw materials and trade with the marketing of industrial products. In the 1600s, Birmingham became the commercial center of a Forge and training network that stretches from South Wales to Cheshire and local businessmen sell goods far away to Western India. These trade links have made Birmingham's metallurgy access to the market much broader, allowing them to diversify away from the low skill jobs that are able to make basic goods for local transactions, in order to target a larger area of specialized, highly skilled and more profitable activities.
By the time the British Civil War, as the economy of Birmingham booms erupted, the population grew, and the result was a high degree of social flexibility and cultural pluralism, and it was developing new social structures very different from those in which they were consolidated. Relations are created around the practical trading association rather than rigid patriarchs, thus imposing their respect to feudal society and their loyalty to the traditional religion of the church and the nobility. The city's strong political and emotional progression for the Congressional delegation brought Birmingham into being attacked by the Royal Guard in the 1643 Birmingham fight, and the town grew into the center of the Catholic Church in the 1630s and was a haven for non-religious people from the 1660s.
In the 18th century, this independent tradition of thought and collaboration evolved into a cultural phenomenon called the Midlands Mining. The town developed into a prominent center for literary, music, art and theater activities; and the top citizens of the town — especially members of the Birmingham Moon Festival — become influential participants in the spread of scientific and philosophical ideas around the european spiritual world. The intimacy between Birmingham's leading thinkers in the Opening Day and local producers — people like Matthew Boulton and James Keir — make this a particularly important town for the exchange of knowledge between the purely scientific world and the physical-technological world. This created a "chain reaction initiative", which formed a key link between the scientific revolution that took place first and the industrial revolution followed.
The development of a large industry in Birmingham starts early on than in towns that produce textile products in the north of England, and have different incentives. Rather than a staircase economy, characterized by a low wages weak workforce, produce a single mass of goods such as cotton or wool in large production units and mechanization, the development of Birmingham's industry is built on the adaptation and creativity of a highly paid workforce that is highly divisible with a healthy division of labor, making a more specialized variety of professions in it. start-up economy includes small-scale factories and is often self-employed. This creates an unusual high level of innovation: In the central years of the industrial revolution from 1760 to 1850, the people of Birmingham registered patents three times more than any other city in the U.K.
The demand for capital to supply for rapid economic development also led Birmingham to develop into a large financial center, with wide international relations. The Lloyds Bank was founded in the town in 1765, and the world's first building society, the Ketley's Building Society, founded in 1775. By 1800, the West Midlands had the highest average banking office in the regions of the UK, including London.
The 18th-century Birmingham initiative is usually in the form of a series that increases small-scale improvements in existing products or processes, but there is also significant developments centered on the emergence of an industrial society. In 1709, Abraham Darby I, who was trained in Birmingham, moved to Coalbrookdale County, and built the first high oven to successfully melt iron ore in coke, metabolize quality, volume and scale so it can produce cast iron. In 1732, Lewis Paul and John Wyatt invented a wheelchair-parts wheelchair, "the most important idea" in developing the socialization cotton industry. In 1741, they opened the world's first cotton factory in Upper Primingham's Upper Austria. In 1746, John Roebuck invented the drilling process, which allowed the production of large-scale sulfuric acid, and in 1780 James Keir to develop a high-volume lye-calloid process, and commited modern chemical industry. In 1765, Matthew Boulton opened Soho's enterprise, first in the combining of mechanization of former private capital production under a factory roof, through a system called "reasonable production". This is the largest unit of production in Europe, which has become a symbol of the emergence of a factory system.
Most importantly, the 1776 industrial steam engine was developed by James Watt and Matthew Boulton. For the first time, unleashing the capacity of human society from the constraints of human strength, water power and animals, it was believed to be the key time of the entire industrial revolution and was a key element of increasing production worldwide in the coming centuries.
Regents and Victoria
Birmingham became a prominent national political feat for political reform in the early 19th century, when Thomas Attwood and the Political Union of Birmingham brought the country to the internal war zone in "The May Day," before passing the Great Reform Act in 1832. The gatherings of the Union in Newhall Hill in 1183 and 13 832 are the largest political conferences that have ever happened in the United Kingdom. The duke of Durham John Lambton was the drafter of the law, and wrote that, "the nation owes reform to Birmingham, and their help from the times of revolution." The fame in 1832 made John Bright transform Birmingham into a forum for his successful campaign on a second law of reform in 1867, thereby extending the right to vote for urban labor.
Birmingham's new tradition continues to the 19th century. The city is the end of the first two long-distance railways in the world: Grand Junction, 40 miles long in 1837, and London and Birmingham Railway was 180 km long in 1838. The Birmingham Hill teacher invented the postal stamp and established the first modern universal postal system in 1839. Alexander Parkes informs the first plastic plasellation in wellerica. 1855.
By the 1820s, a large-scale canal system was developed that allowed greater access to natural resources and industrial fuel. During the Victorian period, the population of Birmingham grew rapidly to over half a million people, and Birmingham became the second largest population center in the UK. Birmingham was given a city status in 1889. Joseph Chamberlain once was mayor of Birmingham and later was a congressman, and his son Neville Chamberlain was also the mayor of the city and was later the most famous two of the political characters ever lived in Birmingham. The city set up its own university in 1900.
20th century and contemporary
The First World War caused a terrible loss of life for Birmingham, with more than 150,000 men in the city serving the armed forces, more than half of men, of which 13,000 are killed and 35,000 are injured. The start of the mechanized war also increased the strategic importance of Birmingham as an industrial center, the British Commander-in-Chief John French described the war as "a battle between Krupps and Birmingham." By the end of the war, Prime Minister David Lloyd George also recognizes the importance of Birmingham in the victory of his allies, emphasizing "countries, empires, and world owes skills, talent and resources to Birmingham a great debt of gratitude".
Birmingham suffered heavy losses when the German Air Force bombed the city in World War II. The city is also the place where two scientific discoveries are proven to be key to war results. Otto Frisch and Rudolf Peierls originally described the practical way of making a nuclear weapon in the 1940s Frisch-Peierls casualty, in the same five manhetron socket invented by John Randall and Henry Boot, it was a key component of radar and later microwave. The details of these two findings, along with the first ever jet engine invented by Frank Whittle in neighboring Rugby, were shipped to the United States in September 1940.
The city underwent a massive redevelopment in the 1950s and 1960s. This process includes extensive high-rise real estate like Castle Vale. Bull Ring was rebuilt and the Birmingham New Street station is redeveloped. During the decades following the Second World War, the ethnic minority component in Birmingham has changed significantly, because the city receives immigrants from within and outside the Commonwealth. The city’s population peaked in 1951 with 1,113,000 inhabitants.
Birmingham maintained that the richer, prosperous province of the United Kingdom until the 1970s, had higher household income than both in London and the southeast, but the economic and capacity to reform in the post-war decades sought by the central government to restrict the growth of the city and to the population of the North Wales region. These measures inhibit the "natural improvement of firms in Birmingham, leaving them with the old and the weak burden," and the city increasingly depends on the automobile industry. The recession in the early 1980s caused the Birmingham economy to collapse, having unprecedented unemployment and social disturbances in the inner cities. Birmingham's industry industry has collapsed suddenly and tragic. In 1976, the West Midlands region, with its main economic dynamics, Birmingham still had the highest GDP than the English regions outside the southeast, but for 5 years it was at its lowest level in the UK. Birmingham alone has lost 200,000 jobs from 1971 to 1981, concentrated in the manufacturing sector; the relative salary in the West Midlands from the highest level in the U.K. in 1970 to the lowest level in 1983. By 1982, the city's unemployment rate reached 20%, and it was about two times as much in the inner city areas such as Aston, Handsworth and Sparkkies.
The city council is carrying out a diversified economic policy oriented towards the service sector, retail and tourism in order to reduce production reliance. A number of initiatives have been undertaken to increase the city’s attractiveness to tourists. In the 1970s, the National Exhibition Center (NEC) was built, it was 16 kilometers from the center of the city, the neighboring Solihull colony in parallel with the majority of the Birmingham Council. The Center for International Conference (ICC) was opened in the center of Birmingham in the early 1990s. The area around Broad Street, including Centenary, ICC and Brindplace, was scaled up as they entered the 21st century. In 1998, Birmingham participated in the 240s G8 summit.
The renovation of the city during the 1990s and 2000s also witnessed significant changes in the housing areas of the city, most notably the Pype Hayes real estate section of the city, which was built during the years between the two wars but was finally built up entirely due to structural defects. Many of the 1960s property councils in the city, mostly small apartment buildings and houses, were dumped in similar reconstruction projects, including the large-scale Castle Vale property in the northeastern part of the city. In September 2003, the Bullring procurement synthesis was opened after a three-year project, during the same year the city failed to run for the European capitalist state capital in 2008. Birmingham continues to develop, the inner city road was destroyed as a deterrent for the city center expansion, and then a huge urban reform project called the city. City is implemented. The city was affected by nation-wide riots in August 2011, resulting in massive offenses committed in a number of urban areas, and three people died in the Winson Green area.
Birmingham lies at the center of the West Midlands region in the UK, in the relatively high Birmingham atom, ranging from 150 to 300 meters above sea level and has the principal north-south of the UK crossing between the basins of the Severn and Trent. Southwest of the city lies on Lickey hills, Clent hills and Walton hills, of which Walton hills are 316 meters high and has an extensive view of the city. Birmingham has only small rivers to get rid of the water, primarily the Tame River and its posterity, Cole and Rea.
The city of Birmingham, belonging to an urban area consisting of a southern Solihull region, of the city of Wolverhampton, and the industrial towns of Black Country northwest, which make the West Midlands metropolitan area cover nearly 600 km². Surrounded by the metropolitan area of Birmingham, an area of economic intimacy to the city through employment - including the former capital of Mercia, Tamworth and the town of Lichfield Cathedral in Staffordshire north; the Coventry industrial city and towns of Warwickshire County are Nuneaton, Warwick and Leamington Spa east; And the towns of Worcestershire County are Redditch and Bromsgrove southwest.
Most of the region, which is called the old Birmingham city, which is a northern part of the ancient Arden Forest, can still feel them through the thick oak trees in the city, and in the vast numbers of places with the "ley" tail, like Moseley, Saltley, Yardley, Stirchley and Hockley: In ancient English ē means "forest land glow".
In geographical terms, Birmingham is dominated by the birth of Birmingham that runs across the city from the hills of Lickey in the south-west via Edgbaston and Bull Ring, to Erdington and Sutton Coldfield in the northeast. In the south and east of the cuts, the ground is mostly softer Mercia clay, which strands into bunter stones and has the Tame, Rea and Cole valley of their exterior. In the north and west of the cut, higher than the area surrounding it from 46 to 183 meters and below the majority of the city center, there is a long line of hard Keuper sandstone. The background rocks below Birmingham are mostly defined between Permi and Trias.
Birmingham has a mild ocean climate like most British islands, the average temperature in the summer (July) of 21.3°; And in winter (January) it's about 6.7°C. From 1971 to 2000 the warmest day of the year the average year has the highest temperature of 28.8°C and the coldest night on -9°C. About 11.2 days a year will reach a temperature of 25.1°C or higher and 51.6 nights will be recorded as frost. The highest temperature ever recorded was 34.9°C in August 1990. Like most of the other major cities, Birmingham has a significant urban thermosome effect. The coldest night for recording on January 14, 1982, the temperature went to -20.8°C in Birmingham airport on the east of the city, but only -12.9°C in Edgbaston near the center of the city. Birmingham has a relative snow over other major urban areas in the UK, because of its domestic and relatively large position. From 1961 to 1990, the average Birmingham airport had 13 days of snows every year, compared to 5.33 in London Heathrow. Snowshowers often pass through the city in a sliding way known to Cheshire on the northwest airflow, but may also come from the North Sea through the northeast airflow. Extreme weather is rare but the city is known to suffer from cyclones, such as July 2005, in the southern part of the city, which is causing damage to buildings and businesses in the region.
|Winterbourne's climate data (South Birmingham), 1981-2010|
|Month(s)||1||AD 2||1||AD 4||AD 5||AD 6||AD 7||AD 8||AD 9||AD 10||AD 11||AD 12||Year(s)|
|Critical average (°F)||6.7||7.1||9.8||12.7||16.0||19,000||21.3||20,820.8||17.8||13,613.6||9.5||6.9||13.5|
|Rainfall, mm (inches)||73.2 |
|rainy days TB ( ≥ 1.0 mm)||12.9||10.2||10.7||11.1||10,610.6||9.9||9.0||10.4||9.7||12.3||12.4||11.8||131.13|
|Average monthly hours of sunshine||54.5||73,773.7||107.7||149.3||177.6||181.3||193.7||180.2||139.5||104.5||64.0||52.3||1,478.3 miles|
|Source: Office Met|
|Birmingham's climate data|
|Month(s)||1||AD 2||1||AD 4||AD 5||AD 6||AD 7||AD 8||AD 9||AD 10||AD 11||AD 12||Year(s)|
|Average number of daylight hours||8.0||10.0||12.0||14.0||16.0||17.0||16.0||15,000||13.0||11.0||9.0||8.0||12.4|
|Average blue ray index||1||1||AD 2||AD 4||AD 5||AD 6||AD 6||AD 5||AD 4||AD 2||1||0||1|
|Source: Weather Atlas|
Birmingham has the 571 highest parks of European cities - a total of 3,500 hectares of public open space. The city has over six million green trees, and 400 kilometers of streams and urban currents. Sutton Park has an area of 971 hectares in the northern part of the city, the largest urban park in Europe and a national natural reserves. Birmingham's botanical garden is located near the center of the city, maintaining its scenes from the original restoration in the original design of J. C. Loudon in 1829, and the Winterbourne Botanical Garden in Edgbaston reflects more informal art and handicrafts derived from the Edward time there. Birmingham has many of the wild, informal areas such as Project Kingfisher and Woodgate Valley County Park or in the manner of choosing parks such as seLickey Hills, Handsworth, Kings and Cannon Hill, Cannon Hull also has the Birmingham Nature Center.
In the mid-2012 estimates, the population of Birmingham reached 1,085,400, an increase of 11,200 or 1.0 percent from the same time as in 2011. Since 2001, the population has increased 9,50 or 1 percent. Birmingham is the local government and largest city outside London in the U.K. The population density is 4,102 people per kilometer from 377.2 people per kilometer in the U.K. Based on the 2011 demographic, the population of Birmingham is expected to reach 1,160,100 in 2021, increase 8.0 percent, compared to 9.1 percent in the previous decade.
|Ethnic groups in Birmingham, 2011|
|Rhythm and blues||4.4%|
|Source: 2011 Demographic survey|
According to data from the 2011 Demographic survey, 57.9 percent of the population were white (53.1 percent of whites, 2.1 percent of whites, 2.7 percent of other white people), 4.4 percent were mixed with rags (2.3 percent of whites and the Black Caribbean, 0.3 percent whites and 1 percent of Africans. and Asia, 0.8% of other races), 26.6% of Asian people (13.5% of Pakistani people, 6.0% of Indian people, 3.0% of Bangladesh, 1.2% of Chinese, 2.9% of other Asian groups), 8.9% of black people (2.8% of Africans, 4.4% of the Caribbean people, 1.7% of black people). 1.0% of the Arab population and 1.0% carry other nationalities. Fifty-seven percent of primary school pupils and 52 percent of high school students in 2007 came from families outside the group of the white U.K.
In Birmingham, 60.4 percent of the population in 2001 is between the ages of 16 and 75, compared to 66.7 percent for the entire UK. Women were more likely than men during their individual years, with the exception of the youngest groups (0-18), late 30s and late 50s. Women account for 51.6 percent of the population while men make up 48.4 percent. The most significant difference in age groups, reflecting the longer lifespan of women. The expanding age tower at about 20 years old is largely due to students coming to the city. Children about the age of 10 are relatively small, reflecting a decline in fertility per century. There's a large group of children under 5 who have shown higher fertility in recent years. The number of births increased by 20 percent between 2001 and 2011.
In 2011, out of all households in Birmingham, 0.12% were members of the same-sex partner households, the ratio for the entire United Kingdom was 0.16%. In this year, 25.9 percent of households own houses completely, 29.3 percent else own their homes with mortgages. These figures are below national average. 45.5 percent of the population said they were in very good health, lower than the national average. Another 33.9 percent said that they are well-being and also below the national average, and 9.1 percent said they have limited daily activities due to their health.
|Religion in Birmingham, 2011|
|Source: 2011 Demographic survey|
Christianity is the largest religion in Birmingham, when 46.1 percent of the population received it as a Christian in the 2001 Demographic Survey. The religious component in the city is diverse, irrespective of London, the Islamic community, and the Buddhist community in the city is the first; the city has the second largest Hindu community and the seventh largest Jewish community in the U.K. Between demographic surveys in 2001 and 2011, the percentage of Christians in Birmingham fell from 59.1% to 46.1%, while the percentage of Muslims increased from 14.3% to 21.8% and the proportion of non-religious people increased from 12.4% to 3%. All other religions maintain the same rate.
St Philip's Cathedral was upgraded from its normal church position when the English Diocese of Birmingham was established in 1905. The city also has two other cathedral: The main cathedral of Saint Chad is the headquarters of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Birmingham, and the main church of the Greek Orthodox Church. The Coptic Midlands Orthodox Diocese also had a headquarters in Birmingham. Birmingham's original church is St Martin Bull Ring, ranked II. Not far from Five Ways is a small church in Birmingham completed in 1910 on the original site of Cardinal Newman.
The oldest Jewish church in Birmingham is the Mosque of Severn Street built in 1825 according to the Greek Renaissance architecture, which is now a meeting of the Tam Point. By 1856, it was replaced by the Singers Hill Mosque, ranked II. The Mosque at the Center of Birmingham is one of the largest mosques in Europe, built in the 1960s. In the late 1990s, Ghamkol Shariff Masjid was built in the Small Heath. Sikha's Gurdwara is Guru Nishkam Jawak Jatha built on the Soho road in Handsworth in the late 1970s, and the Peace Patriarch Dhammatalaka was built near the Edgbaston reservoir in 1990s.
Birmingham once stood out as a center of production and technology, but the city economy is now dominated by the service sector, and by 2012 this region accounts for 88 percent of the work in the city. Birmingham is the largest center in the U.K. for public administration, education and health; and after Leeds was the second largest center in London for jobs in other business and financial sectors. Birmingham is ranked as the world-class city of beta-level, behind London and Manchester in England, and the urban economy around the second largest city in the U.K. with its PPP GDP amounting to US$121.1 billion in 2014. Large companies based in Birmingham, including the IMI plc technical company, and the urban area of which is an urban area. the middle of many big companies just behind London and the southeast. The city has such big infrastructure as the National Exhibition Center and the International Conference Center, which attracted 42 percent of all British trade fairs and exhibitions.
The manufacturing sector accounted for 8 percent of all work in Birmingham in 2012, which is below the average in the whole of England. The big industrial factories in the city include Jaguar Land Rover at Castle Bromwich and Cadbury in Bournville, while large local manufacturers also participate in a supply chain for small-scale manufacturing and handicrafts that are precise. Many traditional industries remain: Forty percent of all diamonds in the UK are still created in 300 independent manufacturers in the Birmingham's "Jewellery Quarter," maintaining a first-time industry in Birmingham in 1308.
Birmingham’s total value of GVA is 24.8 billion pounds by 2015, economic growth grew at the rate of 2013-2015, reaching 4.2 percent in 2015, the average GVA growth rate at the second highest in the eight "nuclear cities in the UK." The value of production in the city fell to 21 percent in real terms between 1997 and 2010, but the value of insurance and financial activities was more than doubled. With 16,281 companies registered in 2013, Birmingham has the highest level of business creation outside London in the U.K., while the number of city subscribers increased to 8.1% in 2016. Birmingham only stood behind London and Edinburgh in the private sector from 200 Ten to 2013.
Economic inequality in Birmingham is higher than all the other major cities in the UK, and is ranked after Glasgow in the UK only. The city’s unemployment level is ranked highest nationwide, with 10.0 percent of the population working in the economy unemployed (June 2016). In the Aston and Washwood Heath inland neighborhoods, it was over 30%. Two-fifth of Birmingham's population in the region is classified as the top 10 percent of the lowest in the U.K., and Birmingham, in general, is the poorest locality in the U.K. in terms of income and loss of work in 2010. The infant mortality rate in the city is at a high level, 60 percent lower than the national average. Meanwhile, only 49% of women have jobs, compared to 65% nationwide in 2012, and only 28% of the working age population in Birmingham has a higher educational level than the average of 34% of urban areas.
According to the Mercer's 2014 study, Birmingham ranks 51 in the world, as the second highest level in the U.K. This is an improvement relative to the city's 56 position in 2008. Big City Plan sets the goal of bringing cities into the top 20 cities in this index by 2026. A city-wide sector has been identified as enterprise creation, tax reductions, and planning to attract investment.
Birmingham has nine connected cities;
- Chicago, United States (1993)
- Frankfurt am Main, Germany (1966)
- Changchun, China (1983)
- Guangzhou, China (2006)
- Nanking, China (from 2007)
- Johannesburg, South Africa (1997)
- Leipzig, Germany (1992)
- Lyon, France (1951)
- Milan, Italy (1974)
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